Public health insurance is provided or subsidized in some way by the federal government. Medicare, Veteran benefits, and insurance provided to federal employees are all examples of public health insurance. Private health insurance, on the other hand, is provided by private companies. The CDC estimated that in 2017, 65 percent of Americans under age 65 were covered by private insurance.
There are other plans available year-round that are not individual major medical coverage. Most of these plans are not recommended as stand-alone coverage (with the exception of short-term plans, which can be adequate stand-alone coverage if you're healthy and you know that you need the coverage for only a short time; they are usually not at all adequate for longer-term coverage). These plans are not regulated by the Affordable Care Act, which means they can exclude pre-existing conditions, impose dollar caps on your coverage, and don't have to cover the ACA's essential health benefits. In most cases, these plans cannot really be compared with an employer-sponsored plan, since the coverage will be so much lower quality. If an insurance offer sounds too good to be true, read the fine print carefully. It may end up being a poor substitute for real health insurance, and you don't want to learn those details after you have a major claim.
There are premium subsidies available in the exchange, but you're not eligible for them if the plan offered by your employer is considered affordable and provides minimum value (this is true for your family members as well, if they have access to your employer-sponsored plan, even if the employer-sponsored plan is only affordable for the employee's portion of the coverage; this is known as the family glitch). Most employer-sponsored plans are affordable and do provide minimum value. So if you're shopping for an individual market plan instead, chances are high that you'll have to pay full price for it, without any subsidies.
A good place to start is HealthCare.gov. This is the health insurance exchange created by the The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, and is a one-stop shop for private individual market health insurance plans (note that the exchange itself is run by the government, but the health plans for sale in the exchange are all private, from the health insurance companies with which you're already familiar). People in 39 states use HealthCare.gov to enroll in individual market plans. The other 11 states and the District of Columbia have state-run exchanges, and you'll be directed to their sites from HealthCare.gov when you select your state.
If the coverage available through your employer feels unaffordable, you can shop around online to see what's available. You may be able to find an individual market policy that will provide you with the coverage you need but is less expensive than the premium you pay at work. This is unlikely to be the case if your plan only covers yourself, since your employer is likely subsidizing a good chunk of the total premiums for the plan offered through your job. But some employer-sponsored plans require the employee to cover the full cost of adding family members, so it's possible that your family members could get a better deal with a separate policy.
Anthem Blue Cross Life and Health Insurance Company is a PDP plan with a Medicare contract. Enrollment in Anthem Blue Cross Life and Health Insurance Company depends on contract renewal. Anthem Blue Cross Life and Health Insurance Company (Anthem) has contracted with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) to offer the Medicare Prescription Drug Plans (PDPs) noted above or herein. Anthem is the state-licensed, risk-bearing entity offering these plans. Anthem has retained the services of its related companies and authorized agents/brokers/producers to provide administrative services and/or to make the PDPs available in this region. Anthem Blue Cross Life and Health Insurance Company is an independent licensee of the Blue Cross Association. ANTHEM is a registered trademark of Anthem Insurance Companies, Inc. The Blue Cross name and symbol are registered marks of the Blue Cross Association.
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